Ballast Water References
Articles and Books
*Bolch, C.H. and G.M. Hallegraeff. 1993. Chemical and physical
treatment options to kill toxic dinoflagellate cysts in ships' ballast
water. Journal of Marine Env. Engg. 1: 23-29.
Carlton, James T. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal
of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanogr.
mar. Biol. A. Rev. 23.
*Carlton, James T. 1987. Patterns of tranoceanic marine biological
invasions in the Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science
*Fleming, Carrol B. Ballast-Water Stowaways. Sea Fronteirs.
*Galil, Bella S. and Norbert Hulsmann. 1997. Protist Transport
via Ballast Water - Biological Classification of Ballast Tanks by
Food Web Interactions. European Journal of Protistology 33:
Gollash, S, J. Lenz, H.G. Andres, and M. Dammer. 1996. Introduction
of Non-indigenous Organisms Into the North and Baltic Sea: Investigations
on the Potential Ecological Impact by International Shipping. Institut
fur Meereskunde, Kiel, Department of Marine Planktology.
*Gollash, S. and h.c. mult. H. Rosenthal. Exotics Across the Ocean,
*Hallegraeff, Gustaf M., and Christopher J. Bolch. 1991. Transport
of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ships' ballast water. Marine
Pollution Bulletin 22(1): 27-30.
Jones, Madeleine. 1991. Discharged ballast introduces unwanted
organisms to Australian waters. Australian Fisheries 50.
Kraak Michiel H. S., Daphna Lavy, Hans Schoon, Merel Toussaint,
Wilma H. M Peeters, and Nico M. van straalen. 1994. Ecotoxicity
of mixtures of metals to the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13: 109-114.
Locke, A., D.M. Reid, W.G. Sprules, J.T. Carlton, and H.C. van
Leeuwen. 1991. Effectiveness of mid-ocean exchange in controlling
freshwater and coastal zooplankton in ballast water. Canadian
Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1822.
Locke, A., D.M. Reid, H.C. van Leeuwen, W.G. Sprules, and J.T.
Carlton. 1993. Ballast water exchange as a means of controlling
dispersal of freshwater organisms by ships. Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50 (10).
*Locke A., D. M. Reid and H. C. van Leeuwen, W. G. Sprules, and
J. T. Carlton. 1993. Ballast water exchange as a means of controlling
disperal of freshwater organisms by ships. Can J Fish Aquat Sci
50 (10): 2086.
*Moyle, Peter B. 1991. Ballast water introductions. Fisheries
National Research Council. 1996. Stemming The Tide: Controlling
Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water.
National Academy Press: Washington D.C. 141 pages. (May be ordered
or viewed from National Academy Press web site: http://www.nap.edu)
*Oemcke, Darren. Potential Roles for Ozone and Ultraviolet Irradiation
in Ballast Water Treatment. Published by the Ballast Water Section
of the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Canberra, Australia.
*On international environmental agenda: garbage, ballast water
and emissions. Marine Log 75(896):pp15-19. March 1995.
Roditi, Hudson A., Nina F. Caraci, Jonathan J. Cole, and David
L. Strayer. 1996. Filtration of Hudson River water by the zebra
mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Estuaries 19 (4): 824-832.
Upton, H.F. 1992. Biodiversity and conservation of the marine environment.
*USA Ballast Book 1998-1999: Ballast Research in the United
States of America. Prepared by James T. Carlton and Bridget
A. Holohan for the ICES, IMO, IOC Study Group on Ballast Water and
Sediments, and the IMO Working Group on Ballast Water.
*Valenti, Michael. 1997. Lighting the way to improved disinfection.
Mechanical Engineering 119(7):pp82-86.
Water intake operators and researchers examine zebra mussels. Upwellings
1991, 13 (1): 2-5.
*Weathers, Katherine and Eric Reeves. 1996. The Defense of the
Great Lakes Against the Invasion of Nonindigenous Species in Ballast
Water. Marine Technology 33(2): pp92-100.
*Williams, R.J., F.B. Griffiths, E.J. Van der Wal, and J. Kelly.
1988. Cargo vessel ballast water as a vector for the transport of
non-indigenous marine species. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science
*Chesapeake Bay Comission. 1995. The Indroduction of Nonindigenous
Species to the Chesapeake Bay via Ballast Water: Strategies to Decrease
the Risks of Future Introductions through Ballast Water Management.
Federal Register. United States Coast Guard. 1990. Interim report
to Congress on options to prevent exotic species from entering U.S.
waters in ships' ballast water.: U.S. Coast Guard.
*Federal Register. 1994. Ballast water mamagement for vessels
entering the Hudson River. United States Coast Guard, Department
of Transportation. 54(250).
*Great Lakes Maritime Industry. 1994. Voluntary ballast water
management plan for the control of ruffe in Lake Superior ports.
*United States Coast Guard 1993 edition. 33 CFR Ch.1. In Subchapter
O-Pollution. Section C-Ballast water management for the control
of nonindigenous species.: U.S. Govt.
*United States Coast Guard. 1995. United States Coast Guard
regulations for the control of nonindigenous species in ballast
water on the Great Lakes.
* Indicates MIT Sea Grant has reference on file. Please contact
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